Sub-Structure. 2. Basic Components and Parts of Bridge Structures The bridge structure consists of the following components: Superstructure or … 1. Cross section of classic Ballasted Track with twin BASE and superstructure refer to the reciprocal relationship and interaction between the ever-changing ways that humans collectively get their living (“the forces and relations of production”) and the way they think and behave (ideology, culture, social institutions and the state). Pier is suitable for spanned bridges with a maximum width of deck up to 8 m (2 traffic lanes). Various components and parts of a bridge such as superstructure, substructure, bearings of concrete and steel bridges, their types, importance, functions are discussed. Structural System | Superstructure and Substructure | Tension & Deflection Forces What is Structural System The structural system of a building is designed and constructed to support the loads applied to the building and transmit them safely to the ground without damaging the building. footing and plinth of a building are a part of a sub-structure. The main function of the Substructure is to support and anchor the superstructure safely into the Earth. https://www.askdifference.com/substructure-vs-superstructure It contributes to further load distribution and protects the substructure’s upper surface from penetration of the ballast particles. This part of building safely transfers the load of building to the underlying soil.Therefore, footing should be … https://www.letsbuild.com/blog/substructure-superstructure/amp The shape and size of pier mainly depend on aesthetics, site, space and economic constraints of the construction. In a crystal, a superstructure manifests itself through additional reflections in diffraction patterns, e.g., in low energy electron diffraction or X-ray diffraction experiments.Often a set of weak diffraction spots appears between the stronger spots belonging to what is referred to as the substructure. In crystals. In Marxist theory, society consists of two parts: the base (or substructure) and superstructure.The base comprises the forces and relations of production (e.g. A superstructure (the bridge deck) is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline called ground level and it usually serves the purpose of the structure’s intended use. It must be designed to accommodate both the form and layout of the superstructure. the ballasted track the superstructure also includes theblanket layer (sub-ballast) which consists of sand and gravel adequately compacted. 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